Class 9 Notes Geography Physical Features of India



  • India has all major physical highlights of the Earth, i.e. mountains, fields, deserts, levels and islands. 

  • In India the dirt shading fluctuates from place to put as it is framed from various sorts of rocks. 

  • India is an extensive landmass framed amid various topographical periods. 

  • India's help highlights are result of different procedures like weathering, disintegration and statement. 

  • India has differed physical highlights whose development can be clarified based on the 'Hypothesis of Plate Tectonics'. 

  • As per the hypothesis of Plate Tectonics the seven noteworthy and minor plates that frame the Earth's outside layer continue moving, making pressure and in this way driving collapsing, blaming and volcanic movement. 

  • Plates can have united, dissimilar and change limits. 

  • India's peninsular part is produced using one of the most seasoned landmass of the world 'Gondwana arrive'. It was a solitary landmass including India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica. 

The physical highlights of India can be gathered under the accompanying physiographic divisions : 

(I) The Himalayan Mountains. 

(ii) The Northern Plains 

(iii) The Peninsular Plateau 

(iv) The Indian Desert 

(v) The Coastal Plains 

(vi) The Islands 

The Himalayan Mountains 

  • The Himalayas are youthful overlap mountains which are the loftiest and a standout amongst the most rough mountain hindrances of the world. 

  • The Himalayas are 2400 km long, 400 km to 150 km wide from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh separately. 

  • The Himalayas have three parallel ranges in the longitudinal degree to be specific : 

  • — Great or Inner Himalayas additionally called Himadri. It is the most astounding mountain extend with normal stature 6000 m. 

  • — Middle Himalayas or Himachal. The elevation differs in the vicinity of 3700 and 4500 m. It incorporates ranges like Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat. 

  • — Outer Himalayas or Shivalik. It is peripheral range with 900 to 1100 m normal height. 

  • The longitudinal valley lying between and lesser Himalaya and Shiwaliks are known as Duns. 

  • The Himalayas can be separated into four areas : 

  • — Punjab Himalayas — amongst Indus and Satluj. 

  • — Kumaon Himalayas — amongst Satluj and Kali. 

  • — Nepal Himalayas — amongst Kali and the Tista. 

  • — Assam Himalayas (Eastern Himalayas) — Between Tista and the Dibang (Tsangpo). 

The Northern Plains 

  • It is framed by the interchange of the three noteworthy waterway frameworks – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. 

  • The Northern Plains spread over a territory of 7 lakh sq. km, 240 km long and 240 km to 320 km wide. 

  • The streams that stream to the fields from the mountains are engaged with depositional work. 

  • Distinction in help makes the Northern Plain have four districts. 

  • — Bhabar — laying at the foot of Shiwaliks, a thin 8 to 16 km wide belt of rocks. 

  • — Terai — lying beside Bhabar, a wet and boggy zone with natural life and woods. 

  • — Bangar — Older alluvium plain which transcends the level of the surge fields. 

  • — Khadar — Younger alluvium of the surge fields. 

The Peninsular Plateau 

  • The Peninsular Plateau is the tableland framed because of the breaking and floating of the Gondwana arrive. 

  • It is made out of the old crystalline, molten and changeable rocks. 

  • The level comprises of two wide divisions, in particular, the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. 

  • Focal good countries lie north to stream Narmada. 

  • The eastbound expansions of Peninsular Plateau are privately known as Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau denotes the further eastbound augmentation depleted by the Damodar stream. 

  • The Deccan Plateau, a triangular mass, deceives the south of the waterway Narmada. 

  • The western and eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau are set apart by the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats separately. 

  • The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats. 

  • Anaimudi is the most astounding crest in Western Ghats ( 2695 m ) and Mahendragiri with 1501 m. is the most noteworthy top in Eastern Ghats. 

  • A particular element of the peninsular level is the dark soil region known as Deccan Trap. 

The Indian Desert 

  • The undulating sandy plain secured with sand ridges towards the western edges of the Aravalli Hills is the Indian Desert. 

  • Bow formed ridges called barchans cover vast parts of the Indian Desert. 

  • It has a less precipitation around 150 mm. 

  • Luni is the main substantial stream in this locale. 

The Coastal Plains 

  • The tight beach front strips flank the Peninsular Plateau. 

  • On the west the waterfront strips are separated into Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), Kannad Plain and the Malabar drift from northern to southern part. 

  • The fields along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level. 

  • On the east the seaside strip is separated into Northern Circars and the Coromandal Coast from northern to southern part. 

The Islands 

  • The Lakshadweep Islands bunch in the Arabian Sea is near Kerala. 

  • The Lakshadweep Islands were some time ago known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. 

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a lengthened chain of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal. 

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a hoisted part of submarine mountains. 

  • The districts in India supplements each other and makes the nation more extravagant in its characteristic assets. Mountains are the wellspring of backwoods and water. Fields give grains. Levels are storage facilities of minerals. Beach front zones bolster angling and ports.

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July 19, 2018 at 8:16 PM ×


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